Brinkman, L., Goffin, S., van de Schoot, R., van Haren, N., Aarts, H., & Dotsch, R. (preprint). Quantifying the informational value of classification images. Retrieved from

Oh D., Dotsch R., Porter J.M., Todorov A. (preprint). Gender biases in first impressions from faces: Empirical studies and computational models. Retrieved from [materials] [data]

2019 / in press

Brinkman, L., Dotsch, R., Zondergeld, J., Aarts, H., & van Haren, N. (2019). Visualizing mental representations in schizophrenia patients: a reverse correlation approachSchizophrenia Research: Cognition, 17, 100138.

Oliveira, M., Garcia-Marques, T., Dotsch, R., & Garcia-Marques, L. (in press). Dominance and competence face to face: Dissociations obtained with a reverse correlation approach. European Journal of Social Psychology.


Bijlstra, G., Holland, R. W., Dotsch, R., & Wigboldus, D. H. J. (2018). Stereotypes and Prejudice Affect the Recognition of Emotional Body PosturesEmotion.

Klapper, A., Dotsch, R., van Rooij, I. J. E. I., & Wigboldus, D. H. J. (in press). Social categorization in connectionist models: A conceptual integration. Social cognition.


Abir, Y., Sklar, A., Dotsch, R., Todorov, A., & Hassin, R. (2017). The determinants of consciousness of human faces. Nature Human Behaviour. [materials & data]

Brinkman, L., Todorov, A., & Dotsch, R. (2017). Visualising mental representations: A primer on noise-based reverse correlation in social psychologyEuropean Review of Social Psychology.

Klapper, A., Dotsch, R., van Rooij, I. J. E. I., & Wigboldus, D. H. J. (2017). Four meanings of ‘categorization’: a conceptual analysis of research on person perceptionSocial and Personality Psychology Compass.

Kunst, J. R., Dovidio, J. F., & Dotsch, R. (2017). White Look-Alikes: Mainstream Culture Adoption Makes Immigrants “Look” Phenotypically WhitePersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 

Sofer, C., Dotsch, R., Oikawa, M., Oikawa, H., Wigboldus, D. H. J, & Todorov, A. (2017). For your local eyes only: Culture-specific face typicality influences perceptions of trustworthiness. Perception. [materials & data]


Brown-Ianuzzi, J., Dotsch, R., Cooley, E., & Payne, K. (2016). The relationship between racialized mental representations of welfare recipients and attitudes toward welfare. Psychological Science. [materials & data]

Dotsch, R., Hassin, R. R., & Todorov, A (2016). Statistical learning shapes face evaluationNature Human Behaviour, 1, 1. Retrieved from[materials & data]

Van den Brule, R., Bijlstra, G., Dotsch, R., Haselager, W. F., & Wigboldus, D. H. J. (2016). Warning signals for poor performance improve human-robot interaction. Journal of Human Robot Interaction, 5 (2), 69–89.

Toscano, H., Schubert, T. W., Dotsch, R., Falvello, V.,  & Todorov, A. (2016). Physical strength as a cue to dominance: A data-driven approach. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42 (12), 1603-1616. [materials & data]

Klapper, A., Dotsch, R., van Rooij, I, & Wigboldus, D. H. J. (2016). Do we spontaneously form stable trustworthiness impressions from facial appearance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111 (5), 655-664. [materials, data, & supplemental studies]

Dunham, Y. , Dotsch R., Clark, A. R., & Stepanova, E. V. (2016). The development of White-Asian categorization: Contributions from skin color and other physiognomic cues. PLOS ONE 11(6): e0158211. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158211[data]

Koch, A., Imhoff, R., Dotsch, R., Unkelbach, C., & Alves, H. (2016). The ABC of stereotypes about groups: Agency / socio-economic success, conservative-progressive Beliefs, and CommunionJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110 (5), 675-709. DOI: 10.1037/pspa0000046

Paulus, A., Rohr, M., Dotsch, R., & Wentura, D. (2016). Positive feeling, negative meaning: Visualizing the mental representations of in-group and out-group smilesPLOS ONE 11(3): e0151230. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151230.  [data]


Wigboldus, D. H. J, & Dotsch, R. (2015). Encourage playing with data and discourage questionable reporting practices. Psychometrika.

Sofer, C., Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D. H. J., & Todorov, A. (2015). What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthinessPsychological Science, 26(1), 39-47[materials and data]

Todorov, A., Olivola, C. Y., Dotsch, R., & Mende-Siedlecki, P. (2015). Social attributions from faces: Determinants, consequences, accuracy, and functional significanceAnnual Review of Psychology, 66, 519-545.


Bijlstra, G., Holland, R. W.,  Dotsch, R., Hugenberg, K., & Wigboldus, D. H. J. (2014). Stereotype associations and emotion recognitionPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 567-577.

Dunham, Y., Srinivasan, M., Dotsch, R., & Barner, D. (2014). Religion insulates ingroup evaluations: the development of intergroup attitudes in IndiaDevelopmental science. doi: 10.1111/desc.12105

Dunham, Y., Stepanova, E. V., Dotsch, R., & Todorov, A. (2014). The development of race-based perceptual categorization: Skin color dominates early category judgmentsDevelopmental Science, 1-15.

Ratner, K. G., Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D. H. J., van Knippenberg, A., & Amodio, D. M. (2014). Visualizing minimal ingroup and outgroup faces: Implications for impressions, attitudes, and behavior Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106, 897-911.

van den Brule, R., Dotsch, R., Bijlstra, G., Wigboldus, D.H.J. & Haselager, W.F.G. (2014). Do Robot Performance and Behavioral Style affect Human Trust? A Multi-Method Approach. International Journal of Social Robotics, 6 (4), 519-531.


Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D. H. J., & van Knippenberg, A. (2013). Behavioral information biases the expected facial appearance of members of novel groupsEuropean Journal of Social Psychology, 43, 116-125.

Imhoff, R., & Dotsch, R. (2013). Do we look like me or like us? Visual projection as self- or ingroup-projectionSocial Cognition31(6), 806-816.

Imhoff, R., Woelki, J., Hanke, S., & Dotsch, R. (2013). Warmth and competence in your face! Visual encoding of stereotype contentFrontiers in Psychology, 4:386. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00386

Todorov, A., Dotsch, R., Porter, J. M., Oosterhof, N. N., & Falvello, V. B. (2013). Validation of data-driven computational models of social perception of facesEmotion, 13(4), 724-738.

Todorov, A., Mende-Siedlecki, P., & Dotsch, R. (2013). Social judgments from facesCurrent Opinion in Neurobiology, 23(3), 373-380.

Van den Brule, R., Bijlstra, G., Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D. H. J., and Haselager, W. F. G. (2013). Signaling robot trustworthiness: Effects of behavioral cues as warnings . In Herrmann, G.; Pearson, M.; Lenz, A.; Bremner, P.; Spiers, A.; Leonards, U. (Eds.). LNCS 8239: Social Robotics. (pp. 583-584). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-02675-6


Dotsch, R., & Todorov, A. (2012). Reverse correlating social face perceptionSocial Psychological and Personality Science, 3 (5), 562-571.


Karremans, J. C., Dotsch, R., & Corneille, O. (2011). Romantic relationship status biases memory of faces of attractive opposite-sex others: Evidence from a reverse-correlation paradigmCognition, 121(3), 422-426.

Imhoff, R.*, Dotsch, R.*, Bianchi, M., Banse, R., & Wigboldus, D. H. J. (2011). Facing Europe: Visualizing spontaneous ingroup projectionPsychological Science, 22, 1583-1590. * Equal contribution

Todorov, A., Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D. H. J., & Said, C. P. (2011). Data-driven methods for modeling social perceptionSocial and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(10), 775–791.

Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D. H. J., & van Knippenberg, A. (2011). Biased allocation of faces to social categoriesJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 999-1014.

Müller, B. C. N., Kühn, S., Van Baaren, R. B., Dotsch, R., Brass, M., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2011). Perspective taking eliminates differences in co-representation of out-group members’ actionsExperimental Brain Research, 211,423-428.


Said, C. P., Dotsch, R., & Todorov, A. (2010). The amygdala and FFA track both social and non-social face dimensionsNeuropsychologia, 48, 3596-3605.

Frankenhuis, W. E., Dotsch, R., Karremans, J. C., & Wigboldus, D. H. J. (2010). Male physical risk-taking in a virtual environmentJournal of Evolutionary Psychology, 8, 75-86.

Langner, O., Dotsch, R., Bijlstra, G., Wigboldus, D.H.J., Hawk, S.T., & van Knippenberg, A. (2010). Presentation and validation of the Radboud Faces Database. Cognition & Emotion, 24 (8), 1377—1388. [download database]

Rinck, M., Kwakkenbos, L., Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D. H. J., & Becker, E. S. (2010). Attentional and behavioral responses of spider fearfuls to virtual spiders. Cognition and Emotion, 24 (7),1199-1206.

Rinck, M., Rörtgen, T., Lange, G., Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D. H. J., & Becker, E. S. (2010). Social anxiety predicts avoidance behavior in virtual encounters. Cognition and Emotion, 24 (7),1269-1276.

Hermanides, J., Bosman, R. J., Vriesendorp, T. M., Dotsch, R., Rosendaal, F. R., Zandstra, D. F., Hoekstra, J. B. L., & DeVries, J. H. (2010). Hypoglycemia is associated with ICU mortality. Critical Care Medicine, 38, 1430-1434.

Vrijsen, J. N., Lange, W. G., Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D. H. J., & Rinck, M. (2010). How do socially anxious women evaluate mimicry? A virtual reality study. Cognition and Emotion, 24 (5), 840-947.


Dotsch, R.*, & Wigboldus, D. H. J.* (2008). Virtual prejudiceJournal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1194-1198. * Equal contribution

Dotsch, R., Wigboldus, D. H. J., Langner, O., & Van Knippenberg, A. (2008). Ethnic out-group faces are biased in the prejudiced mindPsychological Science19, 978-980.

Non peer-reviewed working papers

Bijlstra, G., & Dotsch, R. (2011). FaceReader 4 emotion classification performance on images from the Radboud Faces Database. Unpublished manuscript.